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Dye-sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) : Sel Surya Organik
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TOPIC: Dye-sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) : Sel Surya Organik

Dye-sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) : Sel Surya Organik 28 Sep 2010 20:04 #614

Hingga tahun 2007, rasio elektrifikasi di Indonesia baru sekitar 65%. Rasio elektrifikasi merupakan perbandingan antara rumah tangga yang telah mendapatkan akses energi listrik dibandingkan dengan seluruh rumah tangga yang ada di Indonesia. Hal ini disebabkan rumah tangga tersebut terletak di daerah yang terpencil yang belum memiliki jaringan transmisi listrik. Sayangnya, membangun infrastruktur jaringan transmisi listrik bukanlah investasi yang murah. Sebagai solusinya, dibutuhkan energi alternatif yang dapat beroperasi tanpa membutuhkan jaringan transmisi.

Energi surya di Indonesia memiliki potensi yang menjanjikan. Total intensitas penyinaran rata – rata 4.500 Wh/m2¬hari di Kawasan Barat Indonesia (KBI) dengan variasi bulanan 10% dan 5.100 Wh/m2¬hari di Kawasan Timur Indonesia (KTI) dengan variasi bulanan 9%. Nilai tersebut jauh lebih besar dibandingkan dengan Jepang yang total intensitas penyinarannya hanya 150 – 180 Wh/m2¬hari.
komponen_dan_struktur_DSSC.JPG

Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) merupakan terobosan baru dalam solar cell dengan biaya yang relatif lebih murah dibandingkan dengan sel surya konvensional (silikon). DSSC ini pertama kali ditemukan oleh Michael Gratzel dan Brian O’Regan pada tahun 1991 di École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Swiss.
Berbeda dengan sel surya konvensional, DSSC merupakan sel surya fotoelektrokimia sehingga menggunakan elektrolit sebagai medium transport muatan. Selain elektrolit, DSSC terbagi menjadi beberapa bagian yang terdiri dari nanopori TiO2, molekul dye yang teradsorpsi di permukaan TiO2, dan katalis yang semuanya dideposisi diantara dua kaca konduktif.

Cara kerja DSSC:
Foton (sinar matahari) yang terabsorbsi oleh dye akan mengalami eksitasi elektron pada dye. Kejadian ini memberikan energy yang cukup kepada elektron untuk pindah menuju conduction band dari TiO2. Akibatnya elektron mengalir menuju elektroda,rangkaian listrik sampai counter elektroda. Elektrolit membawa elektron-elektron kembali ke dye yang berasal dari counter elektroda (CE ) .
Dye yang digunakan pada DSSC umumnya berupa dye sintetik Ruthenium kompleks. Ruthenium kompleks memiliki kemampuan berikatan baik dengan semikonduktor karena memiliki ikatan carboxylate. Ikatan tersebut memberikan efek elektron yang mengalir baik tanpa harus melakukan lompatan dan hambatan dalam proses pengalirannya. Awal penemuan DSSC oleh M.Gratzel, et al, digunakan dyes sintetik ruthenium complex tipe N3 yang menghasilkan efisiensi konversi energi sebesar 7,9%.

Penelitian dalam mencari dyes yang murah dan berbasis tumbuhan (natural dyes) terus dilakukan. Proses fotosintesis pada tumbuhan telah membuktikan adanya senyawa pada tumbuhan yang dapat digunakan sebagai dyes. Zat-zat tersebut ditemukan pada daun atau buah, yaitu antosianin, klorofil, dan xantofil. Antosianin merupakan pigmen tumbuhan yang muncul sesuai dengan pH tumbuhan. Antosianin merupakan pigmen vacuolar yang larut dalam air pada tumbuhan, terdapat pada buah, bunga, dan daun. Xantofil dan klorofil merupakan pemegang peranan penting dalam proses fotosintesis. Xantofil merupakan pigmen kuning grup karotenoid pada daun. Klorofil merupakan pigmen warna hijau dan paling banyak ditemukan pada tumbuhan hijau dan menjadi penyerap utama cahaya tampak penyinaran. Kesemua zat tersebut menyatu dalam daun untuk melakukan fotosintesis.
Penelitian tentang antosianin pada DSSC ini telah lebih dulu dikembangkan. Akan tetapi, penelitian tentang klorofil dan xantofil terus dilakukan. Peneliti telah membuktikan bahwa klorofil dan xantofil dapat tereksitasi dengan adanya penyinaran pada penerapan dyes. Sebagai hasil pengembangannya, peneliti telah mendapatkan efisiensi konversi energi yang lebih baik pada turunan dyes klorofil tersebut karena memiliki gugus carboxylate.

sumber:
Situs Kementrian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral, Rasio Elektrifikasi Nasional Meningkat 1,5% per Tahun, 28 Februari 2009.
Situs Kementrian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral, Energi Surya dan Pengembangannya di Indonesia, 24 September 2009.
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dye-sensitized_solar_cell
www.engadget.com/2010/06/10/michael-grat...zed-solar-cell-wins/
www.sony.net/SonyInfo/technology/technology/theme/solar_01.html
komponen_dan_struktur_DSSC-20100928.JPG
Last Edit: 28 Sep 2010 20:07 by Silvia Widya Mardiana.

Re:Dye-sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) : Sel Surya Organik 29 Sep 2010 22:11 #637

saya mau nanya mbak..sederhana aja..

berapa ya kira-kira harga per meter persegi dari DSSC ini?

mampu nggak kira-kira bersaing secara ekonomis dengan soalr cell konvensional lainnya?

saya kira faktor keekonomisan pembangkit listrik juga merupakan salah satu faktor yang sangat penting disamping kemampuannya menghasilkan listrik, kalau sulit bersaing dengan solar cell yang lain sepertinya DSSC akan sangat disayangkan mengingat teknologi ini saya rasa sangat menarik, karena memanfaatkan bahan yang terdapat di makhluk hidup untuk membuatnya...

oh ya, nanopori TiO2 nya didapat dari bahan non organik bukan y?

Re:Dye-sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) : Sel Surya Organik 14 Nov 2010 23:55 #788

Sampai hari ini, DSSC masih dikembangkan pada tahapan scale-up dan produksi massal. Beberapa perusahaan sudah membeli lisensi dari EPFL Swiss selaku 'penemu' teknologi ini, sebut saja Solaronix dari Swiss, Dyesol dari Australia, 3G Solar dari Israel, dan G24 Innovation dari Inggris. Selain itu berbagai lembaga riset bergengsi juga terus berlomba meningkat efisiensi DSSC, seperti Frauhofer Institute dan juga Sharp. Selain efisiensi yang terus ditingkatkan, berbagai aspek seperti ketahanan terhadap lingkungan, kemampuan sekat permanen (hermeutic sealing), dan desain DSSC juga dikembangkan.

Adapun target harga yang dikejar adalah dibawah 1 USD/Wp, bandingkan dengan sel surya silikon yang kini berkisar 2 USD/Wp. Hal ini sangat berpeluang besar mengingat teknologi manufaktur DSSC tidak memerlukan clean-room yang mahal seperti halnya teknologi manufaktur sel surya silikon. Kemudian DSSC juga tidak menggunakan material silikon yang sangat dibutuhkan di industri elektronik, sehingga tidak terjadi persaingan stok permintaan.

Salah satu komponen penting pada DSSC adalah semikonduktor anorganik yang terbuat dari material metal oksida atau oksida logam, seperti Titanium dioksida (TiO2), Seng oksida (ZnO), yang mana struktur atau bentuknya dimodifikasi sehingga memiliki permukaan yang luas. Hingga saat ini, state of the art DSSC ini menggunakan TiO2 nanopartikel yang berukuran 10-20nm yang membentuk struktur menyerupai sponge atau mesopori.
Last Edit: 15 Nov 2010 00:04 by Kasyful Fuadi.

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