Diskusi seputar pengelolaan penggunaan energi pada kendaraan dan peluang penghematannya.
TOPIC: Power-Generating Shock Absorber
Tugas Topik Khusus A
Energy harvesting dapat diterapkan pada banyak hal. Pada alat transportasi darat misalnya, hal ini dapat dilakukan dengan memanfaatkan shock absorber untuk menghasilkan listrik.
Setiap alat transportasi selalu mengalami getaran. Getaran ini terutama berasal dari mesin dan jalan yang tidak rata. Untuk sumber masalah kedua, hal ini dapat ditanggulangi dengan menggunakan shock absorber. Fungsi utama shock absorber yaitu agar ban tetap menyentuh tanah saat kondisi jalan jelek dan mengurangi getaran yang mencapai penumpang. Pada shock absorber konvensional, energi kinetik yang ditimbulkan roda diubah menjadi energi termal. Hal ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan fluida kompresibel.
Penggunaan Power-Generating Shock Absorber (PGSA) dapat memanfaatkan energi kinetik ini agar dapat diubah menjadi energi listrik. Jika pada shock absorber konvensional menggunakan oli atau gas kompresibel, PGSA menggunakan Linear Motor Electromagnetic System (LMES). Sistem ini memanfaatkan kumpulan magnet permanen yang ditempatkan pada piston. Gerakan magnet permanen inilah yang kemudian dimanfaatkan oleh kumparan pada stator untuk menghasilkan listrik.
Manfaat lain dari PGSA yaitu memungkinkan pengaturan redaman, bahkan secara individual untuk tiap roda. Kebutuhan redaman tiap roda dapat berbeda-beda, misalkan pada kondisi jalan buruk atau saat berbelok. Pada kondisi jalan yang rata, redaman yang diperlukan tidak besar karena guncangan yang dapat timbul pada kondisi tersebut sangat kecil. Sebaliknya, pada kondisi jalan yang tidak rata dibutuhkan redaman yang besar. Saat berbelok, kendaraan akan miring ke arah luar. Hal ini tentunya tidak dikehendaki. Hal ini dapat dikurangi dengan memperbesar redaman pada roda luar. Pada sisi lain, karakteristik redaman berpengaruh kepada pengendalian mobil. Saat kendaraan melaju pada kecepatan tinggi (dan tentunya jalan yang rata) dikehendaki redaman yang rendah sehingga kendaraan lebih stabil. Hal ini memungkinkan pengguna dapat melakukan pemilihan mode normal atau sport (untuk penggunaan saat kecepatan tinggi). Selain itu, perpindahan beban kendaraan seperti pada saat percepatan dan perlambatan juga memungkinkan untuk diatur agar laju kendaraan lebih stabil.
Agar metode ini dapat menghasilkan energi listrik yang maksimal, perlu diperhatikan penempatan kumparan yang tepat yaitu sedekat mungkin pada titik kesetimbangan shock absorber. Masalah baru timbul apabila beban kendaraan bertambah. Sama halnya dengan penggunaan shock absorber konvensional, posisi setimbang dari per merupakan fungsi dari gaya. Semakin besar gaya, semakin besar perubahan panjang yang terjadi. Akibatnya, saat beban kendaraan tidak sesuai dengan kondisi ideal (misal saat kondisi kendaraan penuh) kinerja alat ini menurun.
Kinerja alat ini juga bergantung pada kondisi jalan. Pada kendaraan yang melaju di jalur off road tentunya mendapat manfaat yang besar dengan adanya shock absorber ini. Sementara pada jalanan dalam kota, listrik yang dihasilkan lebih sedikit. Pada perjalanan dalam kota dengan jalan yang relatif rata, kemungkinan menghasilkan listrik dapat terjadi seperti pada saat kemacetan, melewati polisi tidur, atau melewati lubang pada bagian jalan yang buruk.
Pemanfaatan PGSA saat ini masih terbatas, terutama jika diaplikasikan pada mobil dan motor konvensional yang masih menggunakan bahan bakar fosil sebagai sumber tenaga. Pada kendaraan tersebut, penggunaan energi listrik hanya terbatas untuk menyalakan lampu, atau menyalakan alat elektronik seperti radio atau tv. PGSA akan efektif apabila dikombinasikan pada kendaraan dengan motor listrik, seperti kendaraan hybrid (bensin/diesel dan listrik), fuel cell, atau kendaraan yang hanya memanfaatkan energi listrik saja. Efisiensi kendaraan yang memanfaatkan energi listrik tersebut dapat bertambah pula jika dibarengi dengan pemanfaat sistem power generation lainnya, seperti regenerative braking dan termoelektrik.
Last Edit: 28 Sep 2010 20:46 by Bramanto Leksono.
cocok jg tuh dipakai di daerah Bandung..macet dan byk lubang d jalan..
bung bram..harga si PGSA itu sndiri brp klo di Indonesia ini ?!?!
Konsepnya berarti memanfaatkan hydrolik dan generator listrik seperti pada sistem Archimides Wave Swing pada pembangkit listrik energi arus laut dong...
dan apakah sudah ada perhitungan mengenai hubungan gaya dari per dengan seberapa besar energi listrik yang dapat dibangkitkan?
seperti hubungan E=mc2
Irsyad Nashirul Haq, M.T.
Lab. Manajemen Energi, Teknik Fisika - ITB
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